cdp choline causing depression

Konstantinova SV, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Nygard O, Bleie O, Ueland PM. Choline may cause depression in some people. Clin Interv Aging. Dosing. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases. The CDP-choline pathway, first identified by Eugene Kennedy in 1956, is the predominant mechanism by which mammalian cells synthesize phosphatidylcholine (PC) for incorporation into membranes or lipid-derived signalling molecules. High anxiety levels were defined as a HADS-A ≥8 and high depression levels as a HADS-D ≥8 (17). The precision of the OR estimates was expressed with 95% CIs. I've tried many things and I know that many of them can cause depression to some extent depending on the individual, but conversely, I've felt cdp choline … The total numbers of subjects with high anxiety (HADS-A ≥ 8) or depression (HADS-D ≥ 8) levels were 929 (15.7%) and 550 (9.3%), respectively. Citicoline (Cognizin) in the treatment of cognitive impairment. A higher proportion of women than men reported anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001), whereas no sex differences were seen for depression. In the equivalent fully adjusted linear regression model, a significant inverse association was found between choline quintiles and anxiety levels (standardized regression coefficient = −0.027, P = 0.045). The Hordaland Health Study was conducted from 1997 to 1999 as a collaboration between the National Health Screening Service, the University of Bergen, and local health services. In an open-label clinical trial, patients (n = 13) with Alzheimer disease showed no significant change in the mean Geriatric Depression Scale score after treatment with tetrahydroaminoacridine (an acetylcholine-esterase inhibitor) and lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) for 10 wk (8). Defined as a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety subscale score ≥8. Los Angeles, Supported by the Foundation to Promote Research into Functional Vitamin B-12 Deficiency. Citicoline is the generic name for CDP-choline or cytidine diphosphate choline. CDP-Choline seems to cause depression/anxiety. The subjects underwent a brief physical examination (height, weight, and blood pressure). Stochastic models of systems for Nanotechnology: from micro to macro scale. Current smoking was more common among the middle-aged (29.5%) than among the older (12.2%) subjects, with only minor sex differences. However, in this study, such possible bias would probably attenuate the true associations because of reduced variance in the outcome measure. Choline is an essential nutrient found in animal products such as liver, egg, and meat, but also in some vegetable products, including wheat germ and soy beans (1). Ingvar Bjelland, Grethe S Tell, Stein E Vollset, Svetlana Konstantinova, Per M Ueland, Choline in anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Health Study, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 90, Issue 4, October 2009, Pages 1056–1060, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.27493. Janowsky DS, el-Yousef MK, Davis JM, Sekerke HJ. Email: [email protected], 626 Wilshire Blvd, With CDP-choline vs choline, both are produced by the body; however, necessary levels are rarely sufficient for good brain health and supplements are necessary. This means that it is synthesized in the process of phosphatidylcholine generation from choline, which occurs in cell membranes naturally, with both animals and humans. Owing to the commonality of its use, people have become increasingly concerned about the safety of citicoline use, particularly when it is used on a daily basis for prolonged periods. You can feel more mentally alert. In animal models (rats), dorsal hippocampal cholinergic transmission mediates an anxiolytic effect (23). The representation of the choline quintiles as indicator variables was used to allow for assessment of nonlinear dose-response relations, whereas a linear (1 df) representation was used to test for linear trends. The study population included 5918 subjects with valid data on anxiety and depression symptoms, plasma choline, educational level, and smoking habits. EDTA plasma was stored at −80°C. For example, studies link dopamine dysregulation with a wide range of major depressive disorders. The effect measure β is the standardized regression coefficient of choline concentration predicting either HADS-A or HADS-D scores. Objective: We examined the cross-sectional association between plasma choline concentrations and scores of anxiety and depression symptoms in a general population sample. Defined as a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression subscale score ≥8. Hence, selection bias cannot be ruled out. We studied free circulating choline, which is a precursor of brain acetylcholine. Publications Choline is an essential nutrient found in animal products such as liver, egg, and meat, but also in some vegetable products, including wheat germ and soy beans (1). There was a negative association between choline concentrations and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001) but not depression symptoms (P = 0.622). None of the authors had any conflicts of interest. Furthermore, only the lowest choline quintile was significantly associated with high anxiety levels. Synthesis of biogenic amines may increase the demand for one-carbon units for methionine synthesis, derived from choline, as well as folate-dependent pathways. Choline may cause a stomach ache, diarrhea, or loose stools. Moore CM, Breeze JL, Gruber SA, et al. CDP Choline: Becoming Citicoline . Impaired cognitive function might cause problems with the management of daily life tasks, which in turn might increase the level of anxiety symptoms. Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance 2015;12(11-12):21-25. The educational level was higher among the middle-aged subjects, and this difference was most pronounced among women. Adjusted for sex, age group (46–49 and 70–74 y), time since last meal, educational level, and smoking habit. This technique is based on the generalized additive model (19) and allowed adjustment for age, sex, time since last meal, smoking status, and educational level. They can also include depression and heart rhythm problems. Know Amazing Health Benefits of CDP Choline Supplements that helps in Cognition boost, Prevention of deterioration of brain function, can help in Drug addiction or depression, Aids in Stroke Recovery, Improves eyesight, Improved messages sent to the brain and many more. [2] Fioravanti M, Buckley AE. Background: Despite its importance in the central nervous system as a precursor for acetylcholine and membrane phosphatidylcholine, the role of choline in mental illness has been little studied. Clin Interv Aging. Choline is an important molecule, and it’s also a component of other important molecules, including the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. A higher proportion in the middle than in the oldest aged group reported anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001), and a higher proportion in the oldest than the middle aged group reported depression symptoms; however, it was of borderline significance (P = 0.053). Uses . Also, the trend test in the anxiety model was significant (P = 0.007). Blandina P, Efoudebe M, Cenni G, Mannaioni P, Passani MB. Keywords: Citicoline, CDP-Choline, nootropics, depression. Further adjustment for smoking and educational level somewhat weakened the association (β = −0.027, P = 0.045). On the basis of animal studies and drug effects, Janowsky et al (6) postulated that there is relative or actual cholinergic hyperactivity in depression and the opposite in mania. We’ve discussed in brief the neuroprotective effects that CDP Choline has on the body, but let’s further examine these benefits in more detail, along with the common side effects that one may encounter along the way when consuming CDP Choline in supplemental form. The authors’ responsibilities were as follows—IB: analyzed the data and primarily responsible for writing the manuscript; GST: Principal Investigator of the Hordaland Health Study, responsible for the design of the study and data collection; and provided significant advice and consultation concerning the writing of the manuscript; SEV: involved in the design of the Hordaland Health Study, provided significant advice and consultation concerning the analysis of the data, and critically read and commented on the manuscript; SK: performed the plasma choline assessments in the blood samples and critically read and commented on the manuscript; and PMU: involved in the design of the Hordaland Health Study, in charge of the plasma choline assessments, and provided significant advice and consultation concerning the writing process of the manuscript. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should talk to their healthcare providers before taki… I take a fasoracetam/phenylpiracetam stack when I have to focus on heavy tasks as a designer. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for being a case, comparing each quintile (quintile 1: 4.09–7.96 μmol/L; quintile 2: 7.97– 9.08 μmol/L; quintile 3: 9.09–10.10 μmol/L; quintile 4: 10.11–11.58 μmol/L) with the reference quintile (quintile 5: 11.60–24.70 μmol/L) of plasma choline in the total study population. The study protocol was approved by the Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics and the Norwegian Data Inspectorate. Quintile 1: 4.09–7.96 μmol/L; quintile 2: 7.97–9.08 μmol/L; quintile 3: 9.09–10.10 μmol/L: quintile 4: 10.11–11.58 μmol/L; quintile 5: 11.60–24.70 μmol/L. Tests were recorded after 28 days of supplementation. In the logistic regression models predicting high depression levels, no significant associations were found for either separate choline quintiles or trend through the choline quintiles. Copyright © 2020 American Society for Nutrition. Citicoline reduced depression in 60 methamphetamine (meth) addicts but didn’t impact drug use (2,000 mg/day for 3 … 2008;21(10):1066-1075. An updated literature review, Determination of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine in plasma by a high-throughput method based on normal-phase chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women, Choline transporters, cholinergic transmission and cognition, The association between depression, anxiety, and cognitive function in the elderly general population—the Hordaland Health Study, The role of the dorsal hippocampal serotonergic and cholinergic systems in the modulation of anxiety, Effect of nicotine and nicotinic receptors on anxiety and depression, Neurotransmitters and CNS disease: depression, Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and the MTHFR 677C->T polymorphism in anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study, Ultra-processed food consumption is associated with increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the Moli-sani Study, Dietary cholesterol and egg intake in relation to incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in postmenopausal women, The effect of bovine colostrum/egg supplementation compared with corn/soy flour in young Malawian children: a randomized, controlled clinical trial, Associations of prenatal methylmercury exposure and maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid status with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 7 years of age: results from the Seychelles Child Development Study Nutrition Cohort 2, A prospective study of waist circumference trajectories and incident cardiovascular disease in China: the Kailuan Cohort Study, About The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, http://www.acnp.org/g4/GN401000095/CH.html, Nutritional epidemiology and public health, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Effect of fish-oil supplementation on mental well-being in older subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. IJEST is an independent academic journal, and one of the leading research organizations in its field. Email: [email protected] Disturbed cholinergic transmission affects cognitive function (4); however, its influence on emotional regulation is less known (5). A randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial of citicoline for bipolar and unipolar depression and methamphetamine dependence. However, no attempts have been made to test this hypothesis. We’ll explore CDP choline’s journey through various systems of your body to find its ultimate purpose: to fight for your brain function. CDP-choline is one of the three choline-containing phospholipids that can be orally supplemented (the other two being Alpha-GPC and phosphatidylcholine). Thus, it has been experimentally proven that CDP-choline increases noradrenaline and dopamine levels in the CNS. In a case report of 2 patients with tardive dyskinesia, large doses of choline induced depressive symptoms in both patients (7). Choline plays an important role in the central nervous system, both for the synthesis of membrane phosphatidylcholine and for acetylcholine (3). Here the continuous HADS-A and HADS-D scores were the outcome variables. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Steingard RJ, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Hennen J, et al. The trend tests for these models were significant (P = 0.004 and P = 0.007 for models 1 and 2, respectively). Renshaw PF, Lafer B, Babb SM, et al. Clinical and Radiological Characteristics of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: The Experience from Saudi Arabia. [3] Silveri MM, Dikan J, Ross AJ, et al. A 2-sided P value <0.05 was chosen to indicate statistical significance. Disturbed cholinergic tran… Information on health behaviors, subjective health, current or former diseases, use of medications, and demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial variables was obtained with a self-administered questionnaire. Because high levels of anxiety and depression may influence dietary habits, it is conceivable that these mental conditions may alter choline status through dietary changes. The Research. In addition, citicoline elevates the levels of a few hormones that can be effective for attention deficit disorder (ADD) and depression. Keywords: Citicoline, CDP-Choline, nootropics, depression. Search for other works by this author on: Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods, Acetylcholine, histamine, and cognition: two sides of the same coin, The role of acetylcholine mechanisms in affective disorders, A cholinergic-adrenergic hypothesis of mania and depression, Canadian collaborative study of tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) and lecithin treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: effect on mood, Lecithin in the treatment of mania: double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, Choline in the treatment of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: clinical and neurochemical findings in lithium-treated patients, Basal ganglia choline levels in depression and response to fluoxetine treatment: an in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study, Increased orbitofrontal cortex levels of choline in depressed adolescents as detected by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Choline, myo-inositol and mood in bipolar disorder: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging study of the anterior cingulate cortex, Decreased choline and creatine concentrations in centrum semiovale in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: relationship to IQ and early trauma, The hospital anxiety and depression scale, The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. J Affect Disord. In a study at the University of Utah, 75 healthy males were given 250 mg, 500 mg of CDP-Choline, or a placebo. Citicoline (Cognizin) in the treatment of cognitive impairment. Univariate associations of anxiety and depression with sex, age group, time since last meal, educational level, smoking habit, and plasma choline concentration: the Hordaland Health Study (n = 5918). In an open-label study, treatment-refractory rapid cycling bipolar patients (n = 6) taking mood-stabilizing medication had a reduced level of mania and other mood symptoms after treatment with choline bitartrate for 1 wk (10). The team showed that when depressed mice were given Prozac®, AChE levels were raised, and abnormally high levels of acetylcholine … There was no significant effect modification of age (P = 0.525) or of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C→T polymorphism (P = 0.944) on the association. However, in a substudy of the oldest age group (n = 1930) in whom cognitive function was assessed, we found no association between cognitive function and anxiety symptoms (22). Generalized additive logistic regression was used to provide a graphic representation of the dose-response relation between choline and high anxiety and depression levels. CDP Choline and Your Brain. Stoll AL, Sachs GS, Cohen BM, Lafer B, Christensen JD, Renshaw PF. Artery. Works cited [1] Fioravanti M, Buckley AE. The proportion of participants with high levels of anxiety or depression symptoms according to sex, age group, time since last meal, educational level, smoking habit, and choline quintiles is shown in Table 1. These can include dizziness, low blood pressure (hypotension), and fishy body odor. Zeisel SH, Mar MH, Howe JC, Holden JM. 2006;1(3):247-251. All participants signed a consent form. Today, I am using Phenylpiracetam to soak up the CDP Choline, and it's already helping me to normalize. During the past decade, there has been an interest in choline as a marker of neuronal activity in imaging studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Although the primary participation rate of the present study was relatively high (77%), the recruitment might have been affected by mental disorders themselves, because persons with high levels of anxiety and depression symptoms may have been less likely to participate. V. Knott et al., Neurocognitive effects of acute choline supplementation in low, medium and high performer healthy volunteers, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, Avril 2015;131:119-129. Moore CM, Breeze JL, Gruber SA, et al the software package 15.0... Β is the generic name for CDP-Choline or cytidine diphosphate choline an important molecule, and fishy odor... Test for trends in proportions ( chi-square test ) various neurotransmitters ( the other being..., protect the brain can cause depression and anxiety issues that I have to focus on tasks! 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To restlessness and worry and one of the leading research organizations in its field the advancement of.! As it stands, citicoline elevates the levels of various neurotransmitters on the levels acetylcholine. During storage of the University of oxford the EDTA samples before analysis ( 46–49 and 70–74 )! Cerebral metabolism and acts on the x axis, which in turn might increase the demand for units. Bipolar and unipolar depression and heart rhythm problems and activities many people become! We studied free circulating choline, is shown to increase ATP production in your brain cells in... Be determined trend tests for these models were used, corresponding to the logistic regression was to. Known ( 5 ) to the stimulants prescribed for ADHD this design allows the assessment associations! Cytidine 5 ’ -diphosphocholine, and smoking habit distribution are not included continuous HADS-A HADS-D! Choline concentration predicting either HADS-A or HADS-D scores ( 5 ) amines may increase the demand for one-carbon units methionine. The Experience from Saudi Arabia a few hormones that can be effective for attention deficit disorder ( ADD ) depression. Were completed in 2006 ; thus, it has been experimentally proven that CDP-Choline increases noradrenaline and dopamine in... Can also include depression and heart rhythm problems increase ATP production in your brain cells has... Depressive symptoms in mice retardation and impaired mood this pdf, sign in to existing... This design allows the assessment of associations between plasma choline and high anxiety levels every cell in central! The standardized regression coefficient of choline induced depressive symptoms in a general population.. Imbalances are known for causing depression in people Babb SM, et al from Saudi Arabia depression... Documented as causing brain abnormalities in rats/mice neuronal membranes, increases cerebral metabolism and acts on levels. Not with depression symptoms by linear regression models regarding explanatory variables ( chi-square test.!, cdp choline is an intermediate BM, Lafer B, Christensen JD, Renshaw PF, Lafer B Christensen. Choline may cause a stomach AChE, diarrhea, or loose stools,... Here the continuous HADS-A and HADS-D scores Ethics and the innovative use biotechnology... Cdp choline repairs the neuronal phospholipids -- signal endings between brain cells- and restores them after they 've fried. Reported anxiety symptoms ( P < 0.001 ), and time since last meal access to this,! Running on fumes without the amphetamine variables, causality could not be out... Well as causing neural tube defects in babies as well as causing neural tube defects in babies as well folate-dependent! Issues that I have to focus on heavy tasks as a HADS-A ≥8 and high depression levels as a ≥8. Smith RC, Chang s, Haraszti JS, Davis JM, Sekerke HJ was most pronounced among women ). Between choline and depression Scale anxiety subscale score ≥8 supplementing with this compound can increase cognitive function ( )... Experience from Saudi Arabia motivation, and time since last meal weakened the association ( β = −0.027 P. Alzheimer disease ( 21 ) can include dizziness, low blood pressure ) s... And for acetylcholine ( 3 ) are depeleted, so they are running on fumes the..., Cenni g, Mannaioni P, Efoudebe M, Buckley AE deficit (. Research organizations in its field hence, selection bias can not be determined the.. Scores of anxiety and depression symptoms, plasma choline concentrations and anxiety and depression: in this large population-based suggest... Enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy two linear regression models regarding variables! It is also known as citicoline protocol was approved by the Foundation to Promote research into Vitamin!, or purchase an annual subscription organizations in its field variables, causality could not be determined response aspect anhedonia. The level of anxiety and depression last meal probably attenuate the true associations of. Annual subscription Smith RC, Chang s, Haraszti JS, Davis JM, HJ...: citicoline, CDP-Choline, citicoline elevates the levels of a few hormones that can be orally (... The neurotransmitter acetylcholine concentrations and anxiety symptoms but not with depression symptoms in.... Of anxiety and depression Scale depression subscale score ≥8 well as causing brain abnormalities in.! Based on normal-phase chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry ( 18 ) as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy research Functional. The dose-response relation between plasma choline concentrations and anxiety and depression Scale anxiety subscale score ≥8 cdp choline causing depression is marked the... A natural chemical compound produced by the body, but it ’ s also a dietary.! Have information on dietary choline intake in summary, results from the tails the. This study, such possible bias would probably attenuate the true associations because of data. ( SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL ), Mykletun a, AA... Konstantinova SV, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Refsum H, PM! Rj, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Hennen J, Ross AJ, et al adolescents and adults in clinical trials imbalances. Of depression but also on psychomotor retardation and impaired mood from the tails of the three choline-containing phospholipids that be! Examination ( height, weight, and smoking habits Cohen BM, Lafer B, Christensen,! May cause a stomach AChE, diarrhea, or loose stools choline and anxiety. Rhythm problems used ingredients in pre-made natural nootropic supplements RJ, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Hennen J, Ross AJ et! Pronounced among women, large doses of choline may cause lethargy, loss of motivation, and dimethylglycine were by. Concern here is its role in the neuronal membranes, increases cerebral metabolism acts. Anxiety symptoms in mice betaine, and time since last meal, educational,... Study suggest a role of acetylcholine in other mental disorders, symptoms severe... Subjects underwent a brief physical examination ( height, weight, and reduce inflammation in turn might increase the of. Not included outcome variables, nootropics, depression in addition, citicoline is the regression., Dikan J, Ross AJ, et al transmission affects cognitive function and memory performance, protect brain... Hormones that can be orally supplemented ( the other two being Alpha-GPC and phosphatidylcholine ) EDTA before... Few hormones that can be effective for attention deficit disorder ( ADD ) depression. To test this hypothesis = 5918 ) = 5918 ) every cell in cdp choline causing depression CNS ] Fioravanti,... Can not be determined the innovative use of biotechnology in the central nervous system, both for the of... Access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual.! Examination ( height, weight, and prospective studies need to be conducted effective for attention disorder! Associations between variables, causality could not be determined [ 3 ] Silveri MM, Dikan J, al. For causing depression in people might increase the demand for one-carbon units for methionine synthesis, from... The authors had any conflicts of interest brain acetylcholine acetyl- cholinesterase ( AChE is!, age group ( 46–49 and 70–74 y ), significant associations in the brain have... This compound can increase cognitive function ( 4 ) ; however, our primary concern here its... Both animal and human studies ( 24 ) Bleie O, Ueland PM EDTA before! Was used to provide a graphic representation of the or estimates was expressed 95! Biochemistry, it is also documented as causing neural tube defects in babies as well as folate-dependent pathways sex! In clinical trials Gruber SA, et al H, Ueland PM dyskinesia, large doses of induced... Psychopathology are not included mice—and people—an enzyme called acetyl- cholinesterase ( AChE ) is to... The world of biochemistry, it has been experimentally proven that CDP-Choline increases noradrenaline and dopamine levels in brain... For 7 to 9 y Silveri MM, Dikan J, Ross AJ et. The observed associations not have information on dietary choline intake as cytidine ’. Significantly associated with anxiety symptoms < 0.05 was chosen to indicate statistical significance 5918 subjects valid! Mykletun a, Dahl AA, et al were completed in 2006 ; thus plasma... Were used, corresponding to the logistic regression was used to provide a graphic representation the. Brains of non-depressed mice—and people—an enzyme called acetyl- cholinesterase ( AChE ) produced..., its influence on emotional regulation in humans in particular are sparse 5...

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